Thursday, November 13, 2008


Grains include wheat, rice, rolled oats, dried corn, pearled barley, and other cereal grains. Flour, cornmeal, and pasta products such as macaroni and spaghetti are also included. Each family should store various grain items that suit their individual circumstances. For example, rather than storing three to four hundred pounds of wheat per person, a family might choose to store two hundred pounds of wheat, one hundred pounds of flour, twenty-five pounds of rice, twenty-five pounds of rolled oats, twenty-five pounds of dried corn, and twenty-five pounds of macaroni per person. There are numerous combinations. This gives variety to the menu and encourages using and rotating the supply. It also provides choices for those who do not like or cannot eat a particular grain.

Most grains can be dry-pack canned in small containers. This makes them more convenient to use and reduces the possibility of spoilage. Grains may also be stored in tightly sealed metal or heavy plastic containers." (Ensign, June 1989, pg. 40.)

"This grain is the first to store and use. It has high nutrition, great storing qualities and excellent cooking properties and possibilities. It is about 12% protein and contains Vitamin E, the B vitamins and numerous trace minerals and nutrients as do all the other grains. Wheat is used in the following forms:
1) Whole grain - used for flour, casseroles, salads, cereals, and many meatless main dishes.
2) Wheat flakes - are a delicious cereal and are used in cookies and other baked goods where rolled flakes are called for.
3) Whole grain wheat flour - necessary for making gluten, also for baked goods and some cereal recipes.

Barley is one of the oldest known grains. It is about 10% protein and contains calcium, phosphorus and potassium in significant amounts. Barley can be used in the following ways:
1. Whole grain - used in cereals, ground into flours.
2. Rolled flakes - similar to rolled oats. These can be used in hot cereals, granola recipes or any way that you would use rolled oats. These flakes can also be used in recipes in place of rolled oats.
3. Pearl Barley - rounded grains of barley which have had the husks removed. This is used in soups.
4. Barley flour - used in bread making and other cooking. This flour contains less Gluten than wheat and so it should be used with some whole wheat for a light product. It is used often for people on a wheatless diet.

Buckwheat is not a true grain. It belongs to the same family of plants as sorrel. Nevertheless, it is very nutritious and should be included in our diets.
1. Whole grain buckwheat - can be used in cereals or ground into flours.
2. Buckwheat flour - can be used in yeast breads and many delicious breakfast quick breads (such as pancakes and waffles).

Corn is an American grain and is the principle grain of many people. It contains Vitamin A, potassium and phosphorus. When combined with dried beans, corn is a complete protein. Sweet corn is used mainly as a summer garden vegetable. Other uses are:
1. Whole grain dried corn - this can be used as a fresh vegetable by sprouting it and cooking it with butter and salt. Whole grain is ground into flour. Commercial corn meal flour has been de-germed, which removes the most nutritious part of the grain, the germ.
Corn meal or corn flour - is used many ways. It does not contain Gluten and therefore cannot be used alone for making most breads. It is used in yeast breads, quick breads, casseroles, puddings, etc.
3. Corn is also a favorite used as popcorn.

Millet is a small cereal grain rich in iron, niacin, phosphorus and calcium. It is a complete protein and contains 10 to 12% protein. It is very easily digested, making it especially suitable for babies, children and elderly people or people on bland diets.

The whole grain can be steamed and combined with seasonings for a main dish or it is used alone as a cereal or in combination of other grains as a cereal. It can be used in any recipe that calls for rice or in any way that rice is used. It can be steamed and seasoned as a pudding (like rice pudding) or used in recipes for cornmeal. In this use, substitute one cup millet for one cup cornmeal. It can be ground into flour and us
ed in quick breads (or mixed part with wheat flour in breads).

Oats are a familiar nutritious grain. Oats are 14% protein and are rich in B vitamins, Vitamin E, iron, zinc and other trace minerals. They are used in many forms.
1. Whole grain oats - are used in cereals or ground into oatmeal flour.
2. Rolled oats or flakes - are used in cooking recipes, cooked as a cereal or used in making granola. They are a delightful addition to cookies, breads, quick breads, etc.
3. Oatmeal flour - is an excellent flour for people allergic to wheat. It is a bland flour so it combines well with other grain flours. A good wheatless flour is half brown rice and half oat flour. These two flours together are better than either alone.

Whole grain brown rice contains all eight essential amino acids, making complete protein. Wild rice contains twice the content of protein as natural brown rice. White rice has most of the nutrients removed in the refining process.
Whole grain brown rice - is used in many casserole and meatless recipes. It can be cooked as a cereal and also ground into a nutritious flour.
Rice flakes - are similar to rolled oat flakes and can be substituted in recipes calling for oat flakes.
3. Rice flour - is used in many breads and baking recipes. It is excellent used with oat flour as mentioned above.

Rye is the principle grain bread of Germany, Russia and Scandinavian countries. It is used often for specialty breads. Rye is 12% protein and is rich in iron, potassium, phosphorus, Vitamin E and Manganese. Rye is used in the following ways:
1. The whole grain - is used for flour and is dark in color. Mixed cereal can be made with any combination of grains, including rye and rye can be cooked alone as a cereal.
2. Rye flakes - can be used in cereals and granola and any recipe calling for rolled oats.
Rye flour - is another flour used in wheatless products. In bread-making purposes rye resembles wheat more than other flours, but used alone it does make a stickier, less elastic dough. For lighter loaves a combination of wheat and rye is more satisfactory.

This is a new grain that is a man-made cross between wheat and rye. It provides a complete well-balanced protein, in the balance our bodies require, which is a better amino-acid (protein) balance than any other grain. It is used in the following ways:
1. Whole grain triticale - is used as a cereal or ground into flour. It is used in the same way as wheat flour except that it is mixed with wheat because it contains a lower Gluten content than wheat. The flavor of triticale is nuttier and sweeter than wheat.
2. Flaked or rolled triticale - is more nutritious than rolled oats and can be used in the same manner in cookies, cakes and bread. They make a good cooked cereal and can also be used in granola recipes.

The following flour substitution chart may be helpful in using fresh ground grain flours in your favorite recipes. For each cup of white flour, use this:
7/8 cup whole wheat flour
1 1/4 cup rye flour
7/8 cup cornmeal
1/4 cup bean flour
7/8 cup triticale flour
7/8 cup rice flour
3/4 cup buckwheat flour
5/8 cup potato flour
1 1/2 cup oatmeal or oat flour
7/8 cup millet flour

Any combination of grains may be used when making breads. Follow this formula:
2/3 of the flour amount called for in the recipe - whole wheat
1/3 of the flour amount called for in the recipe - any mixture of the following grains: millet, corn, rye, rice, triticale, oatmeal or barley.

HINT: Concerning whole grain flour: You will have better nutrition grinding your own fresh flour and using the flour as you grind it. Much of the vitamins will be reduced through oxidation within 72 hours after grinding unless it is refrigerated in an air-tight container.

(Source: West Jordan Oquirrh Stake "Basically Speaking" Cookbook)

The suggested amount of grain storage per person per year is as follows: Wheat, rice, corn, or other cereal grains (300 lbs.)

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